The following signs or symptoms can be suggestive of cervical cancer:
- Unusual or persistent vaginal bleeding (between periods, post-coital or post-menopausal bleeding)
- Deep pain during intercourse
- Persistent or unusual vaginal discharge (offensive and/or blood stained)
Please do not panic if you do experience any of these symptoms, though, as they can be caused by other conditions. If your symptoms are ongoing, or if you’re worried, make an appointment with your general practitioner (GP). If necessary, your GP will refer you for further tests.
Cervical cancer does not usually carry any external symptoms until it is in advanced stages, and so the best way to prevent cervical cancer is through the recommended 5-yearly Cervical Screening Test.
The current Australian guidelines are that women should have a HPV test every five years between the ages of 25-74 years old. Women between 70 and 74 years of age who have had a regular screening test will be recommended to have an exit HPV test before leaving the cervical screening program. Women older than 69 years of age who have never been screened or have not had regular screening tests should have an HPV test if they request screening. HPV tests should also be taken as recommended by a Medical Practitioner.
This common test serves for early detection of cervical cancer, through identifying the presence of HPV. During a HPV test, a doctor or trained nurse uses a brush or spatula to gently take a collection of cells from the surface of the cervix; these cells will be sent to the laboratory for examination under a microscope.
If HPV is detected, your GP or gynaecologist will discuss whether you need treatment, further tests or another HPV test at an earlier interval than five years. Learn more about the HPV Test here.
A colposcopy, performed by a specialist, can help identify where abnormal or changed cells are located and what they look like. In this procedure, the doctor puts a speculum into your vagina and uses a colposcope to see a magnified picture of your cervix, vagina and vulva. Before the test, the doctor may coat your vagina and cervix with a fluid that will highlight any abnormal areas, and may take a tissue sample (biopsy). Some colposcopes are fitted with a camera connected to a TV screen, so you can watch if you’d like to. You may experience some mild discomfort for 10–15 minutes while the colposcopy is performed.
A biopsy is commonly used to remove cervical tissue for further examination. Biopsies are typically done in a clinic by a specialist and the results are usually available in a week. You may feel uncomfortable for a short time when the tissue is removed. Afterwards, you may experience some pain, similar to menstrual cramping. You may also have some bleeding or other vaginal discharge for a few hours, but these side effects will soon disappear. To allow the cervix to heal and to reduce the chance of infection, you will probably be advised not to have sexual intercourse or use tampons for 2–3 days. Check with your doctor.
Large loop excision of the transformation zone (LLETZ)
LLETZ is another form of tissue removal technique using a loop of wire carrying an electric current to cut out the abnormal tissue from the cervix. Sometimes the doctor can carry out this procedure as part of a colposcopy and remove all visible abnormal cells. The 10 minute procedure can be performed under a local anaesthetic in a clinic or under a general anaesthetic at the hospital. After a LLETZ, you may have some vaginal bleeding and cramping. This will usually ease in about two weeks. To give your cervix time to heal and to prevent infection, you shouldn’t have sex or use tampons for 4–6 weeks.
A cone biopsy is used to determine how deeply cancer cells have spread into tissue beneath the surface of the cervix. A cone biopsy is also performed to treat very early and very small tumours. Further treatment is needed for tumours that are larger. This procedure removes a cone-shaped piece of tissue containing the abnormal cells from the cervix. It is performed under a general anaesthetic and involves a day or overnight stay in hospital. Cone biopsy results are usually available within a week.
If a biopsy shows you have cervical cancer, other tests may be needed to determine if the cancer has spread to other parts of the body.
- Blood tests
- Chest x-ray
- CT scan (computerised tomography scan is a type of x-ray)
- MRI scan
- PET scan (positron emission tomography scan)
Often doctors can use terms that are confusing or hard to understand. The glossary below lists some common medical terms in plain English.
Glossary of terms
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